CASH, Johnny. DAY, Bobby. EDDY, Duane. FORD, Frankie. FURY, Billy. KIDD, Johnny. KNOX, Buddy. LEE, Brenda. OTIS, Johnny. PAUL, Les. RAY, Johnnie. SELF, Ronnie. VEE, Bobby. WRAY, Link. Interpreten mit Cover-Versionen. Interpreten die gecovert wurden. Autoren die gecovert wurden. Original Version mit A. Original Version mit B. Original Version mit C. Original Version mit D. Original Version mit E. Original Version mit F. Original Version mit G. Original Version mit H.
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U2 - With Or Without You. Wynonie Harris - Rock Mr. Pearl Jam - Daughter. Through Fire - Doubt. Sonny James - Young Love. Adam Ant - Goody Two Shoes. UK Film Council. Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 8 August Evening Standard.
Retrieved 25 June The Times. Herald Sun. Retrieved 22 November The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 11 July Stoke Park. Retrieved 22 March Rotten Tomatoes.
Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 29 August IGN UK. Archived from the original on 29 August Chicago Sun-Times. MTV Movies Blog. Slash Film. Retrieved 18 August According to journalist Greg Kot , "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the United States in the s.
By the mids, rock and roll had developed into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music , though the latter also continued to be known in many circles as rock and roll. In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was typically the lead instrument.
These instruments were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late s. After the mids, electric bass guitars and drum kits became popular in classic rock. Rock and roll had a polarizing influence on lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. It is often depicted in movies, fan magazines, and on television. Rock and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both Black American and White American teenagers enjoyed the music.
The phrase "rocking and rolling" originally described the movement of a ship on the ocean,  but by the early 20th century was used both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals  and as a sexual analogy. A retired Welsh seaman named William Fender can be heard singing the phrase "rock and roll" when describing a sexual encounter in his performance of the traditional song " The Baffled Knight " to the folklorist James Madison Carpenter in the early s, which he would have learned at sea in the s; the recording can be heard on the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library website.
Various gospel, blues and swing recordings used the phrase before it became widely popular; it was used in s recordings and reviews of what became known as " rhythm and blues " music aimed at a black audience. In , before the concept of rock and roll had been defined, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe ; her style on that recording was described as "rock-and-roll spiritual singing".
Several sources suggest that Freed found the term, used as a synonym for sexual intercourse, on the record " Sixty Minute Man " by Billy Ward and his Dominoes. It began on the levees and plantations, took in folk songs, and features blues and rhythm". In discussing Alan Freed's contribution to the genre, two significant sources emphasized the importance of African-American rhythm and blues. Not often acknowledged in the history of rock and roll, Todd Storz , the owner of radio station KOWH in Omaha , Nebraska, was the first to adopt the Top 40 format in , playing only the most popular records in rotation.
His station, and the numerous others which adopted the concept, helped to promote the genre: by the mid 50s, the playlist included artists such as "Presley, Lewis, Haley, Berry and Domino".
The origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by commentators and historians of music. Louis , Memphis , New York City , Detroit , Chicago , Cleveland , and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than ever before, and as a result heard each other's music and even began to emulate each other's fashions. The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues , then called " race music ",  in combination with either Boogie-woogie and shouting gospel  or with country music of the s and s.
Particularly significant influences were jazz, blues , gospel , country, and folk. In the s, jazz , and particularly swing , both in urban-based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing Jimmie Rodgers , Moon Mullican and other similar singers , were among the first music to present African-American sounds for a predominantly white audience.
During and immediately after World War II , with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars, bass and drums.
Rock 'n' Roll , Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creating what is instantly recognizable as rock guitar.
Similarly, country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll. Rock and roll arrived at a time of considerable technological change, soon after the development of the electric guitar, amplifier and microphone , and the 45 rpm record. It's Still Rhythm and Blues". In fact, the author stated that the "two terms were used interchangeably", until about Fats Domino was one of the biggest stars of rock and roll in the early s and he was not convinced that this was a new genre.
In , he said: "What they call rock 'n' roll now is rhythm and blues. His style of music combined with black influences created controversy during a turbulent time in history. Presley popularized rock and roll on a wider scale than any other single performer and by , he had emerged as the singing sensation of the nation. Bill Flagg who is a Connecticut resident, began referring to his mix of hillbilly and rock 'n' roll music as rockabilly around Although only a minor hit when first released, when used in the opening sequence of the movie Blackboard Jungle a year later, it set the rock and roll boom in motion.
If everything that came before laid the groundwork, "Rock Around the Clock" introduced the music to a global audience. Later rockabilly acts, particularly performing songwriters like Buddy Holly , would be a major influence on British Invasion acts and particularly on the song writing of the Beatles and through them on the nature of later rock music. Doo-wop was one of the most popular forms of s rhythm and blues, often compared with rock and roll, with an emphasis on multi-part vocal harmonies and meaningless backing lyrics from which the genre later gained its name , which were usually supported with light instrumentation.
Exceptions included the Platters , with songs including " The Great Pretender "  and the Coasters with humorous songs like " Yakety Yak " ,  both of which ranked among the most successful rock and roll acts of the era. Many of the earliest white rock and roll hits were covers or partial re-writes of earlier black rhythm and blues or blues songs. Songwriting credits were often unreliable; many publishers, record executives, and even managers both white and black would insert their name as a composer in order to collect royalty checks.
Covers were customary in the music industry at the time; it was made particularly easy by the compulsory license provision of United States copyright law still in effect. The more familiar sound of these covers may have been more palatable to white audiences, there may have been an element of prejudice, but labels aimed at the white market also had much better distribution networks and were generally much more profitable.
Later, as those songs became popular, the original artists' recordings received radio play as well. The cover versions were not necessarily straightforward imitations. For example, Bill Haley's incompletely bowdlerized cover of " Shake, Rattle and Roll " transformed Big Joe Turner's humorous and racy tale of adult love into an energetic teen dance number,   while Georgia Gibbs replaced Etta James 's tough, sarcastic vocal in "Roll With Me, Henry" covered as "Dance With Me, Henry" with a perkier vocal more appropriate for an audience unfamiliar with the song to which James's song was an answer , Hank Ballard 's "Work With Me, Annie".
Some commentators have suggested a decline of rock and roll in the late s and early s. During the late s and early s, the rawer sounds of Presley, Gene Vincent , Jerry Lee Lewis and Buddy Holly were commercially superseded by a more polished, commercial style of rock and roll.
Marketing frequently emphasized the physical looks of the artist rather than the music, contributing to the successful careers of Ricky Nelson , Tommy Sands , Bobby Vee and the Philadelphia trio of Bobby Rydell , Frankie Avalon , Fabian , and Del Shannon , who all became "teen idols.
Some music historians have also pointed to important and innovative developments that built on rock and roll in this period, including multitrack recording , developed by Les Paul , the electronic treatment of sound by such innovators as Joe Meek , and the " Wall of Sound " productions of Phil Spector ,  continued desegregation of the charts, the rise of surf music , garage rock and the Twist dance craze.
In the s, Britain was well placed to receive American rock and roll music and culture. The initial response of the British music industry was to attempt to produce copies of American records, recorded with session musicians and often fronted by teen idols.
As interest in rock and roll was beginning to subside in America in the late s and early s, it was taken up by groups in major British urban centers like Liverpool , Manchester , Birmingham , and London. Rock and roll influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language.
Many early rock and roll songs dealt with issues of cars, school, dating, and clothing. The lyrics of rock and roll songs described events and conflicts that most listeners could relate to through personal experience. Topics such as sex that had generally been considered taboo began to appear in rock and roll lyrics. This new music tried to break boundaries and express emotions that people were actually feeling but had not talked about. An awakening began to take place in American youth culture.
In the crossover of African-American "race music" to a growing white youth audience, the popularization of rock and roll involved both black performers reaching a white audience and white musicians performing African-American music.
Supreme Court ruling that abolished the policy of " separate but equal " in , but leaving a policy which would be extremely difficult to enforce in parts of the United States. Several rock historians have claimed that rock and roll was one of the first music genres to define an age group.
The youth culture exemplified by rock and roll was a recurring source of concern for older generations, who worried about juvenile delinquency and social rebellion, particularly because to a large extent rock and roll culture was shared by different racial and social groups.
In America, that concern was conveyed even in youth cultural artifacts such as comic books. In "There's No Romance in Rock and Roll" from True Life Romance , a defiant teen dates a rock and roll-loving boy but drops him for one who likes traditional adult music—to her parents' relief. From its early s beginnings through the early s, rock and roll spawned new dance crazes  including the twist.
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