Closed-back headphones have a solid outer shell with no perforations of any sort such that the shell effectively cups the entire ear. Think of open-back models as having a colander-like-shell lots of openings and closed-back models as having a mixing-bowl-shell solid construction from edge to edge, no openings. Closed-back headphones excel at isolating noise. By virtue of that alone, most closed-back over-the-ear headphones provide around 10dB of noise reduction.
Once you plug the headphones in and turn up the music, the presence of the music combined with that light noise isolation does a pretty good job of, in most applications, dampening the sounds of the outside world and bringing the sounds of the music to the forefront. Am J Pol Sci. Who is having more and better sex? The Big Five as predictors of sex in a marriage.
Journal of Research in Personality. Journal of Personality. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. McCrae RR. Openness to Experience: Expanding the boundaries of Factor V. European Journal of Personality. Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents. Common Characteristics. Measuring Openness. The Big Five Factors In addition to openness, the Big Five include: Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism This trait taxonomy is a useful tool for thinking about personality, and research suggests that these five dimensions can play a part in predicting life outcomes in areas that include physical health, mental health, school, work, and social relationships.
How Adaptation Helps Us Change. What to Know About Nature vs. How Open to Experience Are You? Examples of statements that you might find related to openness include: I'm good at coming up with new ideas. I often think about the deeper meaning of things. I'm curious about how things work. I enjoy thinking about theoretical ideas.
I have many artistic hobbies. I place a high value on aesthetics and artistry. I have an active imagination. I appreciate being around diverse groups of people. I enjoy having philosophical discussions. I tend to daydream or get distracted by flights of fancy. I like going to cultural events, art museums, and poetry readings. I would prefer to have a theoretical discussion rather than making small talk. What Is Personality?
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Related Articles. What Are the Big 5 Personality Traits? Are You an Extrovert, Introvert, or Ambivert? How to Become More Open-Minded. Find out More About the Personality Type. Educators are realizing that listening is a skill that can be taught. In Nashville, for example, the public school system has started training in listening from elementary grades through high school. Listening is also taught in the Phoenix school system, in Cincinnati, and throughout the state of North Dakota.
About two dozen major universities and colleges in the country now provide courses in listening. At the University of Minnesota we have been presenting a course in listening to a large segment of the freshman class. We have also given a course in listening for adult education classes made up mostly of business and professional people. These people have made some of the highest gains in listening ability of any that we have seen. During one period, 60 men and women nearly doubled their listening test scores after working together on this skill one night a week for 17 weeks.
At least a start on the first of these two educational elements can be made by readers of this article; a certain degree of awareness is developed by merely discussing factors that affect listening ability. Later we shall discuss some steps that might be taken in order to work at the second element. In general, people feel that concentration while listening is a greater problem than concentration during any other form of personal communication.
Actually, listening concentration is more difficult. When we listen, concentration must be achieved despite a factor that is peculiar to aural communication, one of which few people are aware. Basically, the problem is caused by the fact that we think much faster than we talk.
The average rate of speech for most Americans is around words per minute. This rate is slow going for the human brain, which is made up of more than 13 billion cells and operates in such a complicated but efficient manner that it makes the great, modern digital computers seem slow-witted. People who study the brain are not in complete agreement on how it functions when we think, but most psychologists believe that the basic medium of thought is language.
Certainly words play a large part in our thinking processes, and the words race through our brains at speeds much higher than words per minute. This means that, when we listen, we ask our brain to receive words at an extremely slow pace compared with its capabilities. It might seem logical to slow down our thinking when we listen so as to coincide with the word-per-minute speech rate, but slowing down thought processes seems to be a very difficult thing to do.
When we listen, therefore, we continue thinking at high speed while the spoken words arrive at low speed. In the act of listening, the differential between thinking and speaking rates means that our brain works with hundreds of words in addition to those that we hear, assembling thoughts other than those spoken to us.
To phrase it another way, we can listen and still have some spare time for thinking. The use, or misuse, of this spare thinking time holds the answer to how well a person can concentrate on the spoken word.
Case of the disenchanted listener. In our studies at the University of Minnesota, we find most people do not use their spare thinking time wisely as they listen. Let us illustrate how this happens by describing a familiar experience:.
A, the boss, is talking to B, the subordinate, about a new program that the firm is planning to launch. B is a poor listener.
In this instance, he tries to listen well, but he has difficulty concentrating on what A has to say. A starts talking and B launches into the listening process, grasping every word and phrase that comes into his ears.
Subconsciously, B decides to sandwich a few thoughts of his own into the aural ones that are arriving so slowly. There is plenty of time for B to do just what he has done, dash away from what he hears and then return quickly, and he continues taking sidetracks to his own private thoughts.
Indeed, he can hardly avoid doing this because over the years the process has become a strong aural habit of his. But, sooner or later, on one of the mental sidetracks, B is almost sure to stay away too long.
When he returns, A is moving along ahead of him. At this point it becomes harder for B to understand A, simply because B has missed part of the oral message.
The private mental sidetracks become more inviting than ever, and B slides off onto several of them. Slowly he misses more and more of what A has to say. When A is through talking, it is safe to say that B will have received and understood less than half of what was spoken to him.
A major task in helping people to listen better is teaching them to use their spare thinking time efficiently as they listen. We found that good listeners regularly engage in four mental activities, each geared to the oral discourse and taking place concurrently with that oral discourse.
All four of these mental activities are neatly coordinated when listening works at its best. Here are the four processes:. He pays attention to nonverbal communication facial expressions, gestures, tone of voice to see if it adds meaning to the spoken words. Why is he doing so? The speed at which we think compared to that at which people talk allows plenty of time to accomplish these four mental tasks when we listen; however, they do require practice before they can become part of the mental agility that makes for good listening.
In our training courses we have devised aural exercises designed to give people this practice and thereby build up good habits of aural concentration. Another factor that affects listening ability concerns the reconstruction of orally communicated thoughts once they have been received by the listener. To illustrate:. The newspapers reported not too long ago that a church was torn down in Europe and shipped stone by stone to America, where it was reassembled in its original form.
The moving of the church is analogous to what happens when a person speaks and is understood by a listener. The talker has a thought. To transmit his thought, he takes it apart by putting it into words.
The words, sent through the air to the listener, must then be mentally reassembled into the original thought if they are to be thoroughly understood. But most people do not know what to listen for, and so cannot reconstruct the thought. It seems logical enough to do so. If a person gets all the facts, he should certainly understand what is said to him.
Therefore, many people try to memorize every single fact that is spoken. Memorizing facts is, to begin with, a virtual impossibility for most people in the listening situation. As one fact is being memorized, the whole, or part, of the next fact is almost certain to be missed. When he is doing his very best, the listener is likely to catch only a few facts, garble many others, and completely miss the remainder. Even in the case of people who can aurally assimilate all the facts that they hear, one at a time as they hear them, listening is still likely to be at a low level; they are concerned with the pieces of what they hear and tend to miss the broad areas of the spoken communication.
When people talk, they want listeners to understand their ideas. The facts are useful chiefly for constructing the ideas. Grasping ideas, we have found, is the skill on which the good listener concentrates. He remembers facts only long enough to understand the ideas that are built from them.
But then, almost miraculously, grasping an idea will help the listener to remember the supporting facts more effectively than does the person who goes after facts alone. This listening skill is one which definitely can be taught, one in which people can build experience leading toward improved aural communication. In different degrees and in many different ways, listening ability is affected by our emotions. Or, on the other hand, when someone says what we especially want to hear, we open our ears wide, accepting everything—truths, half-truths, or fiction.
We might say, then, that our emotions act as aural filters. At times they in effect cause deafness, and at other times they make listening altogether too easy. If we hear something that opposes our most deeply rooted prejudices, notions, convictions, mores, or complexes, our brains may become over-stimulated, and not in a direction that leads to good listening.
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