Editor Ernst Naumann — Bach-Gesellschaft Ausgabe , Band 42 pp. Bach also wrote smaller single fugues and put fugal sections or movements into many of his more general works.
Bach's influence extended forward through his son C. Bach and through the theorist Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg — whose Abhandlung von der Fuge "Treatise on the fugue", was largely based on J. Bach's work. During the Classical era , the fugue was no longer a central or even fully natural mode of musical composition. Joseph Haydn was the leader of fugal composition and technique in the Classical era.
This was a practice that Haydn repeated only once later in his quartet-writing career, with the finale of his String Quartet, Op. Some of the earliest examples of Haydn's use of counterpoint, however, are in three symphonies No. The earliest fugues, in both the symphonies and in the Baryton trios , exhibit the influence of Joseph Fux's treatise on counterpoint, Gradus ad Parnassum , which Haydn studied carefully.
Haydn's second fugal period occurred after he heard, and was greatly inspired by, the oratorios of Handel during his visits to London —, — Haydn then studied Handel's techniques and incorporated Handelian fugal writing into the choruses of his mature oratorios The Creation and The Seasons , as well as several of his later symphonies, including No. Under the employment of Archbishop Colloredo , and the musical influence of his predecessors and colleagues such as Johann Ernst Eberlin , Anton Cajetan Adlgasser , Michael Haydn , and his own father, Leopold Mozart at the Salzburg Cathedral, the young Mozart composed ambitious fugues and contrapuntal passages in Catholic choral works such as Mass in C minor, K.
Leopold admonished his son openly in that he not forget to make public demonstration of his abilities in "fugue, canon, and contrapunctus" Konrad. Later in life, the major impetus to fugal writing for Mozart was the influence of Baron Gottfried van Swieten in Vienna around Van Swieten, during diplomatic service in Berlin , had taken the opportunity to collect as many manuscripts by Bach and Handel as he could, and he invited Mozart to study his collection and encouraged him to transcribe various works for other combinations of instruments.
Mozart was evidently fascinated by these works and wrote a set of transcriptions for string trio of fugues from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier , introducing them with preludes of his own. In a letter to his sister Nannerl Mozart , dated in Vienna on 20 April , Mozart recognizes that he had not written anything in this form, but moved by his wife's interest he composed one piece, which is sent with the letter.
He begs her not to let anybody see the fugue and manifests the hope to write five more and then present them to Baron van Swieten. Regarding the piece, he said "I have taken particular care to write andante maestoso upon it, so that it should not be played fast — for if a fugue is not played slowly the ear cannot clearly distinguish the new subject as it is introduced and the effect is missed".
These included the fugues for String Quartet, K. The parts of the Requiem he completed also contain several fugues most notably the Kyrie, and the three fugues in the Domine Jesu;  he also left behind a sketch for an Amen fugue which, some believe [ who?
Ludwig van Beethoven was familiar with fugal writing from childhood, as an important part of his training was playing from The Well-Tempered Clavier. During his early career in Vienna , Beethoven attracted notice for his performance of these fugues. There are fugal sections in Beethoven's early piano sonatas, and fugal writing is to be found in the second and fourth movements of the Eroica Symphony Beethoven incorporated fugues in his sonatas, and reshaped the episode's purpose and compositional technique for later generations of composers.
Nevertheless, fugues did not take on a truly central role in Beethoven's work until his late period. The finale of Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata contains a fugue, which was practically unperformed until the late 19th century, due to its tremendous technical difficulty and length. The last movement of his Cello Sonata, Op. According to Charles Rosen , p. Fugal passages are also found in the Missa Solemnis and all movements of the Ninth Symphony , except the third.
A massive, dissonant fugue forms the finale of his String Quartet, Op. Joseph Kerman , p. Sullivan , p. By the beginning of the Romantic era , fugue writing had become specifically attached to the norms and styles of the Baroque.
Felix Mendelssohn wrote many fugues inspired by his study of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. It consists of a set of twenty-five variations and a concluding fugue, all based on a theme from George Frideric Handel's Harpsichord Suite No.
Franz Liszt 's Piano Sonata in B minor contains a powerful fugue, demanding incisive virtuosity from its player:. Giuseppe Verdi included a whimsical example at the end of his opera Falstaff and his setting of the Requiem Mass contained two originally three choral fugues. The exposition of the finale of Bruckner's Symphony No.
The exposition ends with a chorale, the melody of which is then used as a second fugal exposition at the beginning of the development. The recapitulation features both fugal subjects concurrently. Twentieth-century composers brought fugue back to its position of prominence, realizing its uses in full instrumental works, its importance in development and introductory sections, and the developmental capabilities of fugal composition.
Igor Stravinsky also incorporated fugues into his works, including the Symphony of Psalms and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto. Stravinsky recognized the compositional techniques of Bach, and in the second movement of his Symphony of Psalms , he lays out a fugue that is much like that of the Baroque era. Techniques such as stretto, sequencing, and the use of subject incipits are frequently heard in the movement. It expresses the Creation of All Things: space, time, stars, planets — and the Countenance or rather, the Thought of God behind the flames and the seething — impossible even to speak of it, I have not attempted to describe it Instead, I have sheltered behind the form of the Fugue.
Bach's Art of Fugue and the fugue from Beethoven's Opus the Hammerklavier sonata have nothing to do with the academic fugue. Like those great models, this one is an anti-scholastic fugue. At the micro level of the individual lines, and there are dozens and dozens of them in this music The Henry Purcell theme is triumphantly cited at the end, making it a choral fugue.
In "Fugue for Tinhorns" from the Broadway musical Guys and Dolls , written by Frank Loesser , the characters Nicely-Nicely, Benny, and Rusty sing simultaneously about hot tips they each have in an upcoming horse race.
The film composer John Williams includes a fugue in his score for the film, Home Alone , at the point where Kevin, accidentally left at home by his family, and realizing he is about to be attacked by a pair of bumbling burglars, begins to plan his elaborate defenses. The jazz composer and film composer, Michel Legrand, includes a fugue as the climax of his score a classical theme with variations, and fugue for Joseph Losey's film The Go-Between , based on the novel by British novelist, L.
A widespread view of the fugue is that it is not a musical form but rather a technique of composition. The Austrian musicologist Erwin Ratz argues that the formal organization of a fugue involves not only the arrangement of its theme and episodes, but also its harmonic structure.
Ratz stressed, however, that this is the core, underlying form "Urform" of the fugue, from which individual fugues may deviate. Although certain related keys are more commonly explored in fugal development, the overall structure of a fugue does not limit its harmonic structure. For example, a fugue may not even explore the dominant, one of the most closely related keys to the tonic.
This is unlike later forms such as the sonata, which clearly prescribes which keys are explored typically the tonic and dominant in an ABA form. The fugue is the most complex of contrapuntal forms. In Ratz's words, "fugal technique significantly burdens the shaping of musical ideas, and it was given only to the greatest geniuses, such as Bach and Beethoven, to breathe life into such an unwieldy form and make it the bearer of the highest thoughts. This is related to the idea that restrictions create freedom for the composer, by directing their efforts.
He also points out that fugal writing has its roots in improvisation, and was, during the Renaissance, practiced as an improvisatory art. Writing in , Nicola Vicentino , for example, suggests that:.
This formulation of the basic rule for fugal improvisation anticipates later sixteenth-century discussions which deal with the improvisational technique at the keyboard more extensively. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Double fugue. Contrapuntal musical form based on a subject that recurs in imitation.
For other uses, see Fugue disambiguation. Plate Editor Julius Rietz — Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdys Werke , Serie 11 pp. Plate M. I provide the original scanned version and the filtered, because the filter does some changes smoothening, sharpening borders and some portions of the scan get lost sometimes when they are too small e.
You may ask me for a manually cleaned version. Editor Friedrich August Roitzsch — Leipzig: C. Peters , n. Editor Paul-Gustav Feller. Arranger Isidore Philipp This file is part of the Sibley Mirroring Project. Arranger Steve Shorter b.
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