An attempt to trace the evolution and development of Bharata-Natyam must begin with the early period of the famous Tamil Nadu history.
During this period, several literary works were written, the two most important epic poems. Both contain descriptions of the lives of dancers, chapters on technique and dance performance. Later, in the 12th century AD, scholarly commentaries were written on epic poems that shed light on some obscure passages from the original and on early Tamil texts that contained chapters on music and dance.
In all the early Tamil texts, dance has two main varieties: refined and organized style and dance for fun. The traditional classical dance, which probably evolved from the first variety, became known as Bharata-Natyam over time, and this name is now preserved. The name of the dance is an emotional projection, melody and rhythm, which are recognized by the three essential features of the art of dance.
From literature and chronicles, we learn that the traditions of Bharata-Natyam are connected with the teaching of devadasis. However, the system of initiation of dancers in Hindu temples is very old; we find early confirmation in the existence of a cult in Tamil from the 7th century onwards. From the texts it can be concluded that the requirements for the devadasis from the temples of Tamil Nadu were completed around the 7th century new era. Associated with devadasis, the art of dance was sacred.
They danced in front of the images of God in the temple, as in a regular ritual and outside about the holidays, when the statue of God was carried in a festive procession. Later, the dance was also present at the court, and in such socially important rituals as the wedding.
The Bharata-Natyam technique developed over the centuries, but reached its present state only in the first quarter of the 19th century. They not only systematized and codified the technique of dance, but also made up its modern repertoire.
The name Bharata-Natyam, widespread today, came to art only in the second half of the 20th century. Modern Bharata-Natyam exists not as a religious rite, but as an art. Today, Bharata-Natyam is performed by both women and men, and they do not belong to special classes and associations. Bharata-Natyam was created as a solo dance, but sometimes two dancers dance together.
Holiday theater performances begin each night around 10 pm and end early in the morning. Artists and spectators all local residents are not professional actors and dancers, they come to the festival village. Musicians perform with actors, and like actors and dancers, they participate in the performance not for the sake of earning and receiving remuneration, but for spiritual and moral satisfaction.
The modern name Bharata-Natyam is associated with a dance that connects all parts of a dance performance, but Bharata-Natyam is not only a dance style, technique, but a performance system.
The tradition of classical dance and dance drama exists in three forms: Odissi, Mohini-attam and Kuchipudi, in which the structure of Bharata-Natyam exists in a modified form [19, 23, 25].
The state of Orissa may well be proud to have experienced many cultural influences. In different periods of its history, representatives of different races and beliefs conquered this land and promoted the confusion of ideas, concepts, and religions. The very location of the state - on the east coast of central India - led to the fact that waves of cultural and historical influence rolled over it, which in turn led to the emergence of a completely unique Jagannath philosophy.
As in other regions of India, religious philosophy determined the development of the arts, and dance initially took refuge in a cult complex. And even now the holidays in Orissa are not complete without dance and music. In the temples of Orissa dedicated to Shiva, there are still many intricate in design, amazingly made carved panels containing motives of worship to the god Shiva. The facades of many monuments of architecture of this period are decorated with images of Nataraja and other forms of Shiva and his son Ganesha.
In the temple of Mukteshvar you can see the image of Shiva in the pose of tandava. There are also images of musicians, but not in static postures: rhythm and joy are felt in the movements of the performers. These images are connected by tangible threads with the plastic of the modern Odissi. The kings who ruled Orissa between the 8th and 11th centuries were called Gandharva Kesari and Nritya Kesari.
They clearly considered it a matter of honor to achieve heights in the art of dance and music. It was at that time that inscriptions were written in the Bhubaneshwar temple relating to devadasi women intended to serve the deity. The temple of Jagannath in Puri, the citadel of Odissi, was built by the kings of the Ganges dynasty, who ruled for more than four centuries and acted as powerful patrons of art, architecture and religion.
By that time, Ramanuja's Vishnuit philosophical system had spread throughout the country. However, the rites of worship of Shiva were not forgotten. In the remarkable temple of the Sun in Konarak, built in the 13th century, with its Nata Mandap, or Hall of Dance, a series of sculptures depicting dance, probably the most complex in execution in India, has been preserved.
This is a place of pilgrimage for all dancers and art lovers. The entire temple complex is built in the form of the chariot of the god of the sun, into which seven magnificent horses are harnessed. Sculptures dedicated to dance, especially in Nata Mandap, and its proximity to the sea emphasizes the unearthly beauty of the Dance Hall.
Around the 15th century, during the rule of the Surya dynasty, an abhinay, or dramatically expressive dance, appeared in Odissi. At the same time, Orissa reached the pinnacle of fame in the field of art and literature. The minister at the court of the king himself was engaged in the preparation of the devadasi.
He ensured that dances based on Gita-Govinda were performed carefully and with feeling. This painstaking study by Odissi is still necessary to study this dance style.
By the 16th century in Orissa there were three types of dancers: mahari in temples, start at the royal court and gotipua in akhadahs halls , which spoke to the audience. Only the mahari were allowed into the inner sacred premises of the temple.
Their tradition was strictly observed, there were strict rules of behavior and etiquette for them. They entered into a simple "marriage" with the deity, and so began their service to him. Their ritual dances were performed in an atmosphere of high piety. Later, however, the lustfulness of representatives of the ruling circles and the British authorities led to the degeneration of this type of art, its religious elements lost their meaning, it turned into only a means of entertainment of the royal court.
Many temples were completely abandoned. During the period of religious revival in the 17th century, churches again became patrons of art.
But the mahari gradually disappeared, their place was taken by the gotipua, boys, dressed as girls and having the necessary physical training in akhadahs. They performed Bandha Nritya consisting of complex sculptural poses and bends. Wealthy landowners patronized the gotipua troupe, which traveled around the state in groups, entertaining the public. Their virtuosity was based on the flexibility of their almost gymnastic style. Later, however, the simplicity of their dance was tarnished by a wave of vulgarization that touched both their costumes and their scenic manner.
As soon as they began to compromise, their social status declined, and they also gradually became an endangered tribe of artists.
But in fairness it should be noted that they were always good singers and dancers, and, despite the socio-political storms of the 17th century, when stagnation reigned in all areas of art, it was the gotipua who retained the basis for recreating the ancient tradition in the future. By the beginning of the 17th century, the Mahari tradition had weakened significantly and by the 40s of the last century had disappeared completely.
Nachuni disappeared in the 19th century. Only the gotipua remained, and it was their reconstructed repertoire that formed the basis of the new style. Proponents of rebirth considered the purified version of the gotipua repertoire, Abhinaya Chandrika and the numerous poses of dancers in the Odissi temples to be the authenticity measure of authenticity.
To this day, the Odissi dance style is present in this region and contains adapted elements: karanas, hastes, body movements and body parts that are based on Natya-Shastra and are not found in any other dance style.
Almost all manuscripts are illustrated, and therefore the traditions of Odissi are remarkably preserved. The Odissi dance style has an exhaustive and most systematized technical vocabulary, including only one aspect of art [19, 25]. Its modern form, performed exclusively by women, arose, however, not so long ago and was inspired by the work of dance groups performing their compositions at various public holidays.
Nanjyar Kuta is a variant of the female performance of the highly stylized Kutiyattama, which, in turn, is the surviving receiver of the so-called Sanskrit theater.
The Mohini Attam repertoire, which reveals no connection with the temple tradition, nevertheless carries a certain element of initiation. Scientists of Kerala claim that no traces of women devadasi were found in the history of this region, and any evidence to refute this view allegedly originates from the state of Tamil Nadu, with which Kerala was once historically linked. Most often, this is a solo dance, especially noted for grace, fluidity, simple footwork, and repetitive rhythmic movements.
Most of the compositions of this style tells about the games of the young Krishna with the cowherd boys. The theme of this dance is love and devotion to God. Spectators can feel his invisible presence when the heroine conveys in detail her dreams through rounded smooth movements, soft steps and refined expressions of emotions. Dancing at a slow and medium tempo, the performer is able to improvise and inspire the audience with bhava or emotions.
There are a number of historical evidence proving the existence of solo dancers. There were three types of dancers: Uttama or a noble woman, mostly of aristocratic descent, who were forced to take a vow of celibacy; Madhyam serving the Tantrists during the Kriya rituals; and Dashi, which were intended for rough daily work.
A purely religious dance, Avayavam was performed, as a rule, sitting under Pann's short verse reading or chanting, and included a little footwork to the rhythm of one bell. According to historians, the dancers Mohini Attam have never been attached to a deity as devadasis. Unfortunately, by the beginning of the 14th century, little remained of the conservative and isolated style. By centuries, such theatrical styles of dance as Krishnatta, Ramanatta, and later Kathakali, glorifying male dancers, somewhat pushed aside the female solo performance.
Some historians believe that this was due to the fact that practically no one was allowed to watch the Mohini Attam dance. The only women's tradition, Nanjyar Kuta, was able to survive under the auspices of the temple.
For the first time, the word Mohini appears in the 18th century Malayalam comments on Vyavaharamala, which two centuries earlier was composed by the Majamangalam Narayanan Nambudiri. But, none of these texts gives any idea of the form of dance, most widely used in that period. Being a symbol of tranquil energy, Lord Vishnu, reclining on the serpent Shesha, who is surrounded by the rings, personifies the power of stability and unity of the Universe.
There is a legend according to which Vishnu took the form of the charmer Mohini, when the gods and demons, who smelt the Causal Ocean in the hope of getting Amrita the elixir of immortality , could not decide among themselves who she would get.
Then Mohini cast a spell on demons, took the vessel with the elixir from them and gave it to the gods. She also came to the aid of Lord Shiva, who was pursued by the demon Bhasmasura. This demon, having received from Shiva the gift of destroying anyone on whom he laid his hand, wished to use this gift against Shiva himself. But Mohini distracted Bhasmasura from persecution, promising him that he would possess her if she surpassed her in a dance match. By causing Bhasmasura to repeat her every movement, Mohini eventually led the demon to put his hand on his own head and thus turned himself into ashes.
The frescoes of Padmanabhapuram and the palaces of Mattancheri confirm the popularity of the myths of Mohini. Thus, the very phrase Mohini Attam means either a dancer — enchantress, or a dance — magic. According to experts, the Mohini Attam dance tradition, being the personification of the magic of enchantment, emphasizes the dance through which the male deity is transformed into the female.
Two brothers from the Tanjore quartet, Vadivela and Shivanandam, after the fall of the Maratha kingdom in Tanjore, moved to the palace of Maharaja Tirunal following the dancers Nirajaksha and Satyabhama. It is said that Maharaja also married the dancer Sugandhavalli Tirunal, being himself a poet and composer, creating compositions for the women's dance tradition.
The decoration of his court was also a Tajik musician, Parameshvara Bhagavatar. Therefore, it is not surprising that, with the exception of Cholkett, who included nritta a non-semantic rhythmic dance and reminded Shabdam in Dasyattam, with his emphasis on verses dedicated to God, which was performed instead of Alarip dance-greeting , the character of dancing was similar to Bharata-natyam, especially in compositions such as Jatiswaram, Varnam, Padam and Tillana.
The music was also Carnatic. After the death of Tirunal, representatives of the British authorities all that was left of the tradition of solo female dance art hastily sent to Central Kerala. Therefore, when Vallattol and Mukunda Raj began to restore the dances of Kerala, solo female dance did not meet their high cultural standards. But, despite the rather defiant gestures, some witnesses claim that both the movements and the abhinaya mimic performers were not deprived of artistry.
In another composition, Kalabham Kutu, a dancer in the role of nayika the heroine in love was preparing to meet her beloved, praising the cooling effect of sandalwood paste applied to the body to soothe the heat of unrequited love. With the arrival of the British, the British diplomatic representative, Colonel Monroe, imposed an official ban on Mohini Attam in Travancore and Cochin. Kavalam Narayana Panikar and other authors worked hard to create contemporary music for Mohini Attam in order to give it a completely local sound.
The local music of Sopanam reminded the hymns of Tuevaram, which were performed in the temples of Tamil Nadu. Starting from an arbitrary scale or shadzh, Kopanam in its reconstructed form is performed at a slowly increasing pace [1, 19, 23].
The style of Kuchipudi is a classical dance movement that appeared more than 3, years ago in Andhra Pradesh as a form of dance drama with religious motifs. The presentation involves men and women. The birthplace of Kuchipudi is a village called Kuchelapuram the name of the town in Telugu language means "settlement of actors" in southern India, where the tradition of classical dance dates back to ancient times, as evidenced by the sculptural images of dancers in the Amaravati temples, sculptural images of apsaras, celestial dancers in the temples of South India Qatarra Temple.
By order of Tana-Shah, a well was dug. The joy of the inhabitants knew no bounds, and as a token of gratitude, they staged a grand performance in the form of their native dance.
Abdul Tana-Shah, being a great connoisseur of art, was so impressed with the performance of a dance drama that he presented the artists to the village of Kuchipudi, taking a promise that they would continue the tradition from generation to generation.
Since then, this style of dance and became known as Kuchipudi. But he was popular long before Tana Shah. More than 3, years ago, Bharata Muni, who wrote Natya-Shastra, explained some aspects of the dance, referring specifically to the Kuchipudi dance form.
In ancient temples and Buddhist monasteries, such as Nagaryunakonda, Amaravati and Ghantsala, there are also sculptural compositions from the Kuchipudi tradition.
However, Siddhendra Yoga, who lived a little more than years ago, is considered the father of this style of dance, since it was he who gave Kuchipudi the form that we know to this day. Siddhendra Yoga was a poet from the highest caste of Brahmins. He wrote the dance drama "Bhama Kalapam" dedicated to God Krishna. According to tradition, Krishna saved his life when he was still a young man, and his name was simply Siddhappa. Immediately after the wedding ceremony, Siddhappa and his young beautiful wife, following the ancient tradition, crossed the river by boat.
Suddenly, a terrible wind rose, the boat overturned, and the newlyweds began to sink. Then Siddhappa appealed to God for help, swearing that he would devote his whole life to spiritual service if he survived.
The miracle happened - Siddhappa was saved. He fulfilled his oath and became henceforth Siddhendra Yoga. Since its inception to the present, the Kuchipudi dance form has undergone many changes. Deriving from a religious tradition, Kuchipudi used to be performed only in temples and exclusively by men who belonged to the highest caste of Brahmins. They called the performers Bhagavatulu. Kuchipudi was originally a group dance form.
The first group of Bhagavatulu was formed in But as time went on, it was changing. The first important change was the transfer of views from the temples under the open sky, and then to the stage.
Later, women were allowed to perform dance, and if, before men played female roles, then now women began to play even male ones. At present, there are only three traditional groups of Bhagavatulu, the other performers, both men and women, dance solely solo. However, sometimes they are combined to stage dance dramas, but only on the occasion of important holidays.
Thus, the positive development of the Kuchipudi dance tradition not only expanded the sphere of manifestations of the dance itself, but also allowed each dancer or dancer to fully and freely express their individual characteristics [13, 19, 25]. Manipur is a land of extraordinary beauty, green, fertile, surrounded by mountains. It is the valley of the Serpent God, inhabited by the people, who consider human life and nature as gifts of God and consider dance and music as the most beautiful and most natural way of expressing gratitude.
Manipur is a land where myths and legends coexist with almost scientific explanations of phenomena, where a complex system of prophecies coexists with broad knowledge and deepest philosophy. Rituals are not just formal rites, alienated from the aspirations of ordinary people. In one house you can see shrines testifying to spiritual aspirations, and a loom to meet purely economic needs.
But most importantly, each person feels oneness with nature, and songs and dances are a means of confirming this. This is mainly a ritual dance based on rich mythological material. The main plots are the story of the creation of the world based on the Mahabharata and the story of Krishna Raslila.
The beautiful legend of deities is akin to Shiva and Parvati, which explains the meaning of the name Manipur. When Krishna and the gopis cowherd boys performed Raas-lila, Krishna invited Shiva to see that no one interfered with them.
Shiva really wanted to look at their ecstatic dance, but Krishna did not allow, allowing him to stand only at the gate of the dance floor, and Shiva swore that he would always stand with his back to the dancers. Shiva kept his word, but the intoxicating sounds of the divine flute of Krishna and the ringing of the gopi's ankle bells did not give him rest.
He shared it with Parvati, and they decided to create their own Raas-Leela together. Descending from their Himalayan monastery, they found a fabulous valley full of water.
Shiva threw his mighty trident into the mountainside. The water poured out through the hole that had formed, and then Shiva and Parvati began to dance with joy, and Ananta, the divine serpent, removed the precious stones from his hood and illuminated the valley with them. The creative work of gods and goddesses formed the basis of another tradition.
It says that the Almighty rubbed his right hand and created nine gods, then rubbed his left hand and created seven goddesses. Gods and goddesses began to dance and with the movements of their hands and feet they created matter, and then heaps of earth.
Having created eight heaps, they rested, fortified with food and drink. Sixty such heaps were created, and the gods and goddesses rested after every eight. Along the way, they measured the time units that exist now. Poong, meaning "heap of earth", is both a unit of time and a drum, with which the time cycle is repelled.
Cosmic representations of the inhabitants of Manipur and the laws of existence are interwoven into this myth. To this day, no foreign influences could not bury the tradition of ritual playing out the history of the creation of the world. The chain of traditions in Manipur is inseparable and unchanging. This is an extremely important period in the history of the culture of Manipur.
Bhagya Chandra was an enlightened king, deeply devoted to God. He was called Bhakta Rajarishi, or the ascetic king. There is evidence that he excelled in poetry, dance, music and philosophy, as well as in the art of governing the state, warfare and administration. These qualities were combined in him with humility, compassion and generosity. It is not surprising, therefore, that folk traditions ascribe to him all the human virtues. During the reign of Bhagya Chandra, Manipur was attacked by the Burmese.
Despite the fact that Manipur fiercely resisted, the superior forces and powers of the Burmese people decided everything, and Bhagya Chandra was forced to flee, seeking salvation from Svargadeva, the king of the neighboring state of Tekhou. Leaving Manipur after his defeat, as evidenced by the legends, Bhagya Chandra performed a ritual dance with the hengao spear on a rock that dangerously hung over a high precipice.
Because of the strong wind that raged in the valley, even standing on a high cliff was not easy. And the dance of Bhagya Chandra was perceived as a divine blessing and foreshadowing his return to his kingdom. The kings and queens of Manipur were traditionally experienced in dance and music. The queen could dance on the same square with commoners. Dance was not just a form of entertainment.
It was an offering dedicated to the gods, and there were no barriers to social status and castes on the dance floor. It was believed that kings should embody the subtlety of aesthetic taste, and the rulers would compete with their predecessors, encouraging the development of oratory, poetry, dance and music. That is why tals are still identified with the rule of individual kings, which helps to chronologically arrange them and observe their development.
The story says that King Bhagya Chandra was sanctified by divine grace and the god Krishna himself allegedly appeared to him in a vision and expressed his desire that the dancers and musicians of Manipur sang Raas-lila. Inspired by the image of Krishna, Bhagya Chandra learned that there is a banyan tree from which the image of the deity is to be cut. The king and the elders went in search of the tree, but for a long time could not find it; almost despaired when they heard a boy playing flute in the forest.
Considering this a divine sign, the king continued his search until he met a poor family living in an old house in a remote part of the forest. Near the house was found a giant banyan tree. When they began to chop it, blood started flowing from it. The tree was taken to the capital and an image of Krishna was carved out, which was consecrated among prayers and general exultation. This image has become sacred to the Vishnuite cult in Manipur.
Organizations grouped around the Krishna temple and the royal palace were custodians of artistic, administrative, religious, and literary traditions in Manipur. Their role continues to remain vital, for they constitute the highest body that preserves the highest level of study, interpretation and practical application of all that is based on tradition.
These organizations are respected by the most eminent scholars and performers who seek their advice, in particular, Brahma Sabha on controversial religious issues, Pandit Loisans on controversial issues related to traditions, and Palais Loisans on dance and music.
Even the kings of Manipur have always respected these organizations, their decision was considered final. Their jurisdiction covered the protocol and ceremonies in relation to the arts, they also observed the proper observance of rituals [1, 19, 25]. Of all the types of classical dance in India, Bharata-Natyam is considered the oldest because it most closely matches the ancient texts about dance. This is the oldest and best preserved dance in the world, whose history goes back about 2 thousand years.
Bharata-Natyam is a dance that combines both the story and the technical side. These dances are most interesting for the viewer, difficult to perform, because the dance story is complicated by the need to constantly keep the viewer's attention, and technical dance requires tremendous physical training and ability to smile. In ancient cultures, classical dance has never been a spontaneous emotional outburst. He was one of the ways of contact with knowledge and wisdom, a way of self-knowledge and realization.
The training of Bharata-Natyam took place according to a strictly developed system, under the guidance of a teacher. Like a priest, a teacher is an intermediary transmitting Higher Knowledge. Its basis is the system of traditional lessons adavu , the study of sign language is wise, and Abhinaia is the transmission of emotional states. In addition, students had to know the basics of music, classical singing, natuvangam - pronouncing rhythms, own the technique of applying makeup.
Introducing the art of dance, the Indian teacher guru simultaneously teaches the philosophy of life. Arangetram is a Tamil word for elevation, ascent. To learn the technique, it takes 6—7 years to go through margam. After classes with a guru, the dancer gets qualified. This is a test that verifies the teacher and talent, student's virtuosity.
The female dancer, according to the authors, must conform to the ideas of female beauty, traditional in India. And also, should have absolute control over movements, steps and turns, be endowed with a good voice, be able to dance to the accompaniment of vocal and instrumental music. She should feel at ease during the dance, and know when to finish, and start the performances. For centuries in the temples of the south of India it was performed by novices devadasi. Equally in this beautiful dance of Tamil Nadu there are movement, facial expressions and music.
Religious in spirit, the dance is performed by a single dancer. The content of the dance is almost entirely determined by the rich mythological heritage of the Hindus. Possessing a highly stylized and sophisticated technique, Bharata-Natyam equally uses the elements of Nritta and Nritya. Songs to the theme of love, but love is not sensual, they are performed solemnly, with a sublime mood. The traditional form of dance performance in the style of Bharata-Natyam is solo, but nowadays there are mass performances involving several dancers, which gives the classical dance more entertainment.
In addition, men appear on the scene more and more often, although previously they could only teach the art of dance, while they themselves did not take part in the performances.
There is another version according to which Bharata-Natyam got its name in honor of the legendary sage Bharata, the author of Natya-Shastra, written around the 2nd century AD. The declaration of dance syllables was taken from the Rig Veda, four aspects of the dance were from the Yajur Veda, a song from the Sama Veda, and ways of expressing sentiment and emotion from the Atharva Veda. For 20 centuries Bharata-Natyam has remained the most popular classical dance of India, preserving the basic principles and technique of performance, it conveys fleeting moments of the soul, reflects its unity with the absolute.
This is a kind of worship of gods. The dance calls for the poetics of movement, where expressiveness is achieved through the synthesis of emotions, movements, and a smile. Bharata-Natyam, being a classical dance school, developed his own system of hand gestures, fingers, which were the rarest expressive language in which a rich range of human senses was encoded.
Various gestures, positions of one hand asamyuta hasta , a combination of gestures of two hands samyut hasta make up a vocabulary of narration. Dancers use the mudra language hasta mudra. Classical Indian dance Bharata-Natyam for example is primarily associated with the dance story, in fact, in one way or another adapting the Bharata-Natyam Hasta-Mudra system of gestures, absolutely everything can be explained to the unenlightened.
Based on the expressed value, hasta can be classified into three varieties: natural, interpretive and symbolic. Natural gestures can only mean natural values.
Interpretative gestures convey objects and actions through an imitation of the characteristic features of everything that can be represented: animals, birds, actions. Symbolic gestures are used to express abstract concepts that are difficult to understand. Narrative potential shocks the imagination. A very important role is given to the symbol and hint. The viewer should empathize with what is happening on the stage, draw in her imaginations links of the general chain of the performed action.
Bharata-Natyam is a sophisticated and complex form of dance art. This is a dynamic, earthly and very clear dance style. One of the most important aesthetic virtues is that in Bharata-Natyam there are no unfinished poses; each pose is always perfect. Accordingly, the movements are also ideal, the art of movement is so regulated that it simply cannot fail to admire. The simplest movements are so verified by the three parameters of sthana body position in space , nritta hasta hand gestures , and chaari foot movements that they look perfect.
Retaining all the above features inherent in the South Indian styles, it is distinguished by strict geometric lines and a certain restraint in expressing emotions. Starting position - straightened torso, knees and wide-spread feet give the dance a strict and at the same time elegant symmetry, which is enhanced by the eloquent, expressive play of facial muscles. Then, the dancer's tilts and jumps, the most varied combinations of her movements, are superimposed on this initial dance pose.
The eyes, head and hands of the dancer seem to draw circles, straight lines and triangles. In ancient times, these movements were in the nature of a magical action, but what they denote today, no one can explain. Basic poses are performed in the half-sitting or fully seated position, which should express attraction to the ground.
Emotion is always expressed, but it is not expression, but rather the symbolic designation of a particular feeling. The main techniques are based on the following positions: deployed hips and bent knees, deployed feet half-seated. The combinations of alternate stop on the heel and toe are widely used, but only within the basic posture. The exception is reduced to combinations, in which the dancer takes a straight pose. The body is one. It is not divided into the chest and waist. To designate the simplest pas in Bharata-Natyam, Tamil names were adopted throughout the time.
You can often see a dancer stomping on the floor with a sole in Bharata-Natyam, pushing the heel forward or to the side, sliding the leg along the floor in a sliding motion, quickly moving sideways, stretching her arms and legs in different directions, jumping performed in Muramandi squatting on the floor , and also performs some pas, inherent only in this style, which ends the dance episode.
The combination of figures in the dance allows you to quickly change the direction of movement of the body. Some figures seem energetic, others are soft, some are performed on the spot and in the rhythm of the dance, others fall out of it, some positions provide for greater freedom of movement to the side, while others are performed by the dancer with the definite goal of coming forward from the back of the stage.
Twists and jumps allow movement throughout the scene and movement on the floor. All this provides the choreographer with rich opportunities to compose a variety of compositions. A good dancer can dance very effectively even a small combination of Nritta. The performance of lengthy combinations does not indicate the skill of the dancer, but rather speaks of her endurance and self-control.
Hands in Bharata-Natyam are usually symmetrically located on both sides of the body. There are positions of the arms above the head, around the body and in a position where the arms are extended downwards or sideways at shoulder level.
The symmetrical arrangement of the arms on both sides of the body conveys the dancer's relationship with the universe. In this position are often depicted sculptural dancers. In all these postures, the position of the fingers may vary, but in the Nrite they do not bear any particular meaning, but only give the dance grace and variety.
Hastas in nritye plot dance have a certain meaning. Nritta, if possible, should transmit pure joy, not clouded by different races. The attention of the audience from the line of the body of the dancer and her movements is distracted by the facial expression.
The dancer Bharata-Natyam, if she does not participate in the performance, must refrain from distracting attention. It is necessary to understand that nritta is not a means of expressing different dance moods, it is just its beautiful episode.
To some extent, the dancers portray the rook on a chessboard. They do not know how to walk diagonally, but only very rarely, for particularly spectacular passes through the stage. Adavu is a phrase, a unit of dance, a short and elegant composition, a specific stop following the prescribed combination of steps and movements.
Each Adavu is determined by the cymbal rhythm. There are more than 15 "Adavu", each has many options. Adavu are joined together in various combinations. The number of angahar — 32; their names coincide with the name of karan.
In karanas, the body as a whole takes fixed postures, and the a angahara is a continuous change of postures and positions. If an angahara is phrases, sentences, then karanas are letters alphabet in action. Please leave large bags at home or in your car. Skip to content Accessibility Buy Tickets Search.
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