Some stores do every product daily, which may be overkill. The key is to be consistent with when you audit and how. Develop processes to ensure auditing is done the same way every week. Many new stores — especially in the first year — spend hours per day on auditing and inventory management. Look to streamline. Create checks and balances.
Have two people auditing so you always have someone to check the other. The success of your medical marijuana dispensary or recreational retail store hinges on your team. The common theme for all roles is compliance. Every member of your dispensary team needs to understand marijuana laws, like purchase limits, and the importance of compliance. Cannabis is a highly regulated industry and failing to abide by these rules will put your business and livelihood at stake.
Be sure to create employee management SOPs to ensure you're hiring, training, onboarding, reviewing, promoting, and managing your employees effectively and consistently. The key to dispensary employee retention is treating them well.
And paying fairly. As the business owner, you should also consider benefits — most dispensaries at least offer medical insurance — but others are paying for dental, vision, and k or stock options. Other benefits you could offer include bonuses, paid parking, commuter benefits, employee discounts, paid vacation, paid training opportunities, etc.
This is a career for many people and benefits are part of that. If your staff feel like they are cared for, compensated appropriately, and have opportunity for growth, they will stick around. Here are average payscales for budtenders, general managers, and compliance professionals provided by Vangst, a cannabis recruiting platform.
The challenge is in finding experienced people when you open in a new market. If you can find someone who moved to your state with cannabis retail experience, hire them. Having a beautiful store and great employees is important, but when opening your cannabis dispensary, you need to consider your network, hardware, and technology partners. The first step is to make sure you get the best coverage available in your area and hardline as many components as possible, like printers.
That way if your wifi goes down, you can still print labels. It may be tempting to cut corners or delay expenses until your dispensary is up and running, but hardware is definitely not one of those areas to compromise. Make sure your computers have solid RAM, which will ensure a much faster transaction. Read our dispensary hardware recommendations for more information on choosing the right hardware for your store.
Introducing a dosing gap between the SN38 and initiation of AZD treatment proved to have a more significant consequence on the efficacy benefit. Moreover, a similar outcome was observed using spheroid viability as a readout Fig. Inhibition of ATM and consequent accumulation of unrepaired breaks leading to increased cell death provides the rationale for developing this combination for cancer treatment.
Here, we tested whether different schedules lead to different activation of pharmacodynamic markers that are associated with DNA DSB damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation. These foci can be detected by immunostaining to determine their, size and morphology The same method was applied to quantitate CC3-positive apoptotic cells, while normalisation by spheroid area was not required for Ki67, as this biomarker is present in all proliferating cells.
Spheroids were treated in the chip with SN38 and AZD at different schedules using the microfluidic setup. Cleaved caspase 3 CC-3 was used to quantified apoptotic cell death c , and Ki67 to measure the effect on proliferation d. We tested different weekly in vivo dosing schedules, previously evaluated in SW spheroids on the chip Fig. Tumour volume was measured regularly over 40 days. Tumour volumes at days 7, 15 and 35 were plotted as box-and-whisker graphs for easier comparison with in vitro microfluidic data median—centre line; box limits—25th to 75th percentile; whiskers—min and max values b.
The concurrent combination schedule was not tolerated in mice, therefore in vivo efficacy data could not be generated for this. For tumour xenografts, tumour volumes were measured weekly twice for 38 days for all treatments groups, expect vehicle control, which had to be terminated on day 15 due to the tumour volume limit being reached.
The aim of this work was to design a pump-driven microfluidic platform capable of mimicking in vivo anti-cancer drug PK profiles on in vitro tumour spheroids, thus demonstrating the utility of this novel platform for predicting drug PK, PD and efficacy. Nowadays, tumour-on-chip models are combining 3D spheroid culture technologies and pump-driven or pump-free hydrostatic pressure microfluidic systems.
Most of these platforms, however, are only able to deliver constant flow rates or drug concentrations one at a time, on either a 2D or 3D cell model from monolayers to complex cultures and organoids 15 , 20 , In this system, the proposed chip is designed to deliver the typical drug plasma concentration decrease over time by changing the tilting angle that influences the flow rate.
The pump-driven platform we have developed and described here, is able to deliver constant or customised flow rates, mimicking various physiological scenarios. The flow rate was kept relatively low to both reduce the stress on the spheroids, and to ensure access to the compounds and nutrients given that in our MF platform the spheroids are fed by diffusion through the Matrigel, rather than direct contact with the culture medium.
Most prototype microfluidic devices are gas-permeable, fabricated from poly-dimethylsiloxane PDMS by soft lithography However, PDMS is well known as a small-molecule absorber that can, consequently, affect the concentrations delivered to the tumour model In this study, we have been able to significantly improve on existing systems by combining a pump-driven microfluidic setup with an adapted single-channel Ibidi chip, allowing the flexibility to deliver a particular drug or drug combination for a certain time, corresponding to the physiological relevant PK profile.
The fact that each Ibidi chip can handle up to eight tumour spheroids encapsulated in a Matrigel droplet, means the system is able to cope with the multiple variables associated with both biological complexity, while providing mechanical stability to the 3D culture under flow. Our findings show that the response of SW cells to the treatments in plate static format are different to those obtained from the chip microfluidic setup.
Also, the combination with AZD resulted in greater reduction in viability in the plate format 2. These results support the notion that non-physiological exposures to drugs in vitro may not deliver accurate response readout and more advanced in vitro systems, such as the platform we developed, should be considered for more translational drug assessment.
Another significant advantage of the microfluidic Ibidi chip over the static in vitro plate format is the feasibility to explore treatment scheduling. Understanding how different sequencing continuous, intermittent, gapped schedules of drugs impact the efficacy outcome can help prioritise the design of confirmatory in vivo studies, and thus limit the animal requirement as well as reducing time to generate these data to inform the clinical studies.
Importantly, our proof-of-concept study with irinotecan and AZD suggested that the results generated from this microfluidic platform are indeed translatable into in vivo setting. We propose that the choice of combination treatment schedule could be further guided by changes in pharmacodynamic markers that can be readily evaluated in our chip-microfluidic system.
Further development of our platform is possible, allowing additional automation of steps and increased numbers of flow paths. Each flow path could then safely deliver treatment on two microfluidic chips, loaded by up to eight encapsulated spheroids each. For example, by chaining tumour chips and normal tissues-on-chip in the current setup it may be possible to enable simultaneous assessment of the combination efficacy and toxicity, essentially therapeutic index on a chip, an essential component that needs to be understood to progress the development of any oncology drug.
Both the flexibility and modularity of this PK profile-mimicking microfluidic platform, together with potential for up-scaling, automation and reasonable running costs, make this an important evolution in the development of the organ-on-chip concept.
This will be referred as L complete media. Cells on passages 90—98 were used to generate spheroids to be tested in static plate format and microfluidic setup. Static and microfluidic setup were run simultaneously, using cells from the same batch.
SW cells were thawed and proliferated for two passages and less than eight passages were used to generate spheroids. Static setup plate format used spheroids formed in round bottom well ultra-low attachment plates , Greiner Bio-One and no Matrigel encapsulation. In the microfluidic setup, to avoid spheroid washout and mimic tumour microenvironment, spheroids were encapsulated in Matrigel droplets and transferred as hanging drops to the inner top side of the Ibidi chip channel Supplementary Method 2.
Ibidi chip channel was sealed using the corresponding polymer coverslip. To mimic in vivo anti-cancer drugs PK profile at a constant flow rate, an 8-point concentration scale for specific durations was used.
Each drug was delivered at a specific concentration, for a specific amount of time, consistent with the average concentration for the same durations in vivo, on a h step schedule.
Liquid flow was generated by the airflow directed by OB1 MK3 controller over culture medium reservoirs. CO 2 has been dissolved in the reservoir culture media with no requirement for permeable parts on the microfluidic chip.
No PDMS parts were used, to prevent compound adsorption in any part of the setup. Airflow dispensed by each of the OB1 MK3 channels was split by a port custom made low-pressure air manifold, to reach all reservoirs simultaneously. Liquid flow from reservoirs was directed in the flow path once at a time, corresponding to each of the eight points on the mimicked PK profile, due to the software-controlled piezoelectric switch in the MUX distributor. Most parts of the microfluidic setup are reusable.
Cleaning and sterilisation for microfluidic setup parts. Each microfluidic setup included two chained Ibidi chips per flow line, to allow simultaneously assessment for viability chip1 and biomarkers immunofluorescence, chip2.
To mimic in vivo plasma PK profile for SN38 in monotherapy or combination with AZD, eight points concentrations from the in vivo PK profiles were considered, each of them with specific and synchronised timings Supplementary Method 3. For static setup, compounds were used at the top concentration points used at the Cmax of the PK profile 4. For microfluidic setup, concentrations used in corresponding reservoirs were obtained by 2-step dilution Supplementary Method 6.
On the first step, DMSO stock solutions of 0. On the second step, final concentrations in corresponding reservoirs were obtained by manual pipetting and thorough mixing in the flow reservoirs. Schedules were designed and saved for each treatment condition. Each setup and treatment condition were repeated at least three times.
Spheroid viability assessment used a metabolic method CellTiterGlo 3D, G, Promega by measuring luminescence units expressed by individually recovered spheroids. Nuclear counterstaining was performed by Hoechst at dilution H, ThermoFisher. Spheroid images were taken for each experimental endpoint day 7 using a Leica DMIB microscope Leica Microsystems with brightfield BF , phase-contrast and fluorescence filters.
Each flow line used two chips, one for viability assays and second for immunofluorescence. Both chips were imaged in BF prior spheroid recovery. The average size for SW spheroids was evaluated by measuring spheroid projection area in bright-field images, based on a macro script designed in an open-source imaging software Fiji ImageJ Supplementary Method 1.
Spheroid volume was evaluated following radius deduction from the measured area. Images were transferred and analysed in Fiji ImageJ, using macros designed and tailored for each fluorescence channel and biomarker respectively.
Macros and image analysis protocol for individual biomarkers are described in Supplementary Fig. In the case of R. Viswan v. Union of India , the Supreme Court had held that as long as the restrictions made under this Article are for the purpose specified in that Article, i. In India, different forces have different rules regarding facial hair.
For police, each state police force makes rules regarding facial hair. Most states, however, only allow their non-Sikh police personnel to grow a moustache and not a beard. In the armed forces, only Sikhs are permitted to have a well-maintained beard and untrimmed hair across divisions.
The Army allows non-Sikhs in certain regiments and regions to sport a temporary beard. The Air Force prohibits all non-Sikhs from keeping a beard. But Muslims who had a beard at the time of enrolment are allowed to keep it if they joined the force before 1 January It further held that regulations in regard to personal appearance were neither intended to discriminate against religious beliefs, nor did they have the effect of discrimination against a religious community.
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